Applied Safety + Ergonomics

Deciding when and how to warn can be challenging.  This is especially true in situations where the risk of harm is uncertain. Emerging technologies such as nanotechnology have brought these issues to the forefront, as has the increased media attention to suspected endocrine disruptors found in common household products.

Senior Consultant Raina Shah regularly considers issues related to warnings and uncertain risks. For several years, she has lectured at the University of Michigan about Warnings in the Face of Uncertainty where she uses case studies involving nanotechnology, cell phone radiation, and BPA, among others.

Ms. Shah’s background and training provide a valuable foundation for answering questions at the intersection of psychology, public policy, and human factors, safety, and industrial engineering.  Across a number of industries and time periods, Ms. Shah has addressed issues such as:

  • The precautionary principle and decisions about when to warn
  • Implications and potential adverse effects of providing warnings about uncertain risks
  • Government policies for warning about uncertain health risks and the relative role of manufacturers

For more information on ASE’s chemical hazard communication activities, click here.

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For immediate inquiries or assistance please contact our Ann Arbor, Michigan office at
1.734.994.9400 or

Applied Safety and Ergonomics has been providing valuable analysis, insight, answers, training, data, and problem solving strategies in consultation and expert witness capacities to help clients make informed decisions since 1994.